Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis.
|Full Name||Sigmund Freud|
|Birth Date||May 6, 1856|
|Death Date||September 23, 1939|
|Born||Pribor, Czech Republic|
|Died||London, England, UK|
|Cause of Death||euthanasia (physician assisted suicide)|
|Education||University of Vienna|
|Mother||Amalia Nathansohn Freud|
Jean Martin Freud
Esther Adolfine Freud
Pauline Regine Freud
Freud was an intimate friend and colleague of Carl Jung, who he first met in 1907.
Freud was a close friend and colleague of Otto Rank, and viewed himself as a sort of second father to him. Rank was originally hired in 1906 as the secretary of a small group of physicians who gathered for salon-type discussions with Freud, and soon afterward joined the group himself.
At the University of Vienna, friend studied philosophy under Franz Brentano - whom he greatly admired, physiology under Ernst Brucke, and zoology under Carl Claus. Claus in particular was close to him, and while a third-year student, Freud went to conduct a four-week study at his teacher's zoology farm in Italy on the reproductive systems of male eels.
In the early days of his medical career, Freud worked under Theodor Meynert in his psychiatric clinic for three years, from 1883 - 1886.
Marie Bonaparte was a patient and friend of Freud's, and helped get him out of Nazi Germany.
Through his marriage to Martha Bernays, Freud was the son-in-law of Isaac Bernays.
After his wife's younger sister Minna Bernays came to stay with the family in 1896, rumors began to swirl - particularly thanks to Carl Jung - that Freud was having an affair with his sister-in-law. Hotel logs seem to point to this suspicion being a true one.
Wilhelm Fliess was a colleague and friend of Freud. He often warned him of the health risks of smoking, a habit that Freud was too fond of to give up. He later suggested to Fliess that addictions are substitutes for masturbation.
Freud recieved a scholarship to study under Jean-Martin Charcot in 1885.
Josef Breuer was a mentor, friend, and colleague of Freud. Breuer gave Freud advice on hypnosis, and was also extremely involved in the treatment of Freud's most famous patient, Anna O. He co-authored the book Studies in Hysteria in 1885 with Breuer.
Freud's most famous, first real patient, was Anna O. He began treating her in approximately 1890. However, the common impression that she was his patient alone, and that her treatment was a success, is untrue. She was primarily the patient of Breuer, and her treatment was ultimately unsuccessful. Breuer decided to give up on her sessions after a long period of time, and all of her symptoms eventually returned. She was taken to a mental hospital and Freud "hoped she would die to end her suffering."
Emma Eckstein was a patient of Freu'ds in 1892. She began treatment complaining of stomach pain and depression during her menstrual cycles. Freud's diagnosis was that she masturbated too much (a habit then thought to cause mental illness). Eckstein apparently did have a habit of this, because she took Freud's diagnosis and being accurate, and later became a psychoanalyst herself.
Another of Freud's famous patients was Ida Bauer, who he nicknamed Dora in his case study of her in 1900. She was a young woman complaining of strange pains and a cough, and who was distressed over the involvement of three men in her life - her protective father, her husband, and an admirer who had been propositioning her sexually since she was 14. Freud worked with Bauer for 11 weeks, interpreting her dreams and listening to her speaking. He pressed her with the theory that her conflicted emotions were because all along, she had been tempted to yield to the third man's sexual advances, and now felt both desire and guilt. Bauer rejected this, but Freud was persistant with it, and she abruptly cut off treatment. Freud was frustrated and considered the case a major failure. He wrote the case study Fragments of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria in 1901 on "Dora," often considered his most complex and controversial study.
Wilhelm Stekel was a devoted early follower of Freud. He read and positively reviewed Freud's book The Interpretation of Dreams for a Vienna newspaper, and shortly afterward was most likely treated by Freud for a sexual problem. It was Stekel who suggested, following Freud's success as a frequent professor at the University of Vienna, that he begin a sort of neurological salon where likeminded doctors could gather and discuss. The meetings, started in 1902, were an enormous success, often credited with creating the specialty of psychoanalogy. About a decade later, in 1912, Freud and Stekel had a falling out, and Freud announced to the public that the man had "gone his own way."
Freud was a friend of Alfred Adler. One of the first people that he invited to his neurology salons was Adler. Max Graf met Freud in 1900, and soon became a member of his neurology salons, now called The Wednesday Group. In 1909, Freud conducted a study on Graf's son, Herbert Graf, who was then five years old. Graf had in fact been keeping Freud scientifically informed about every aspect of his son's development ever since he had been born, and Freud wrote a case study, Analysis of a Phobia in a Five Year Old Boy about the young Graf's fear of horses. The study went deep into the child's psyche, and Freud considered treatment a success, although he only examined and met the boy in person once, with all other information about the child delivered to him through his father. Later, Adler and Freud grew apart in their viewpoints, and began to disagree. Adler left the group in 1911.
Deeply interested in his studies, Ludwig Binswanger traveled to meet Freud in 1907, accompanied by his friend Carl Jung. Both men became lifelong friends of Freud. Binswanger was immediately impressed not only by Freud's brilliance, but also his character. Upon his return to his own city of Zurich, Binswanger and Jung started up their own psychoanalysis group, inspired by Freud's. When Binswanger fell seriously ill in 1912, Freud found his friend's sickness "particularly painful." When the futures of Jews seemed at risk years later, Binswanger offered Freud sanctuary in Switzerland in 1938.
Freud decided to allow women to become members of the rapidly growing Wednesday Group, now more officially called the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1911. One of the first women to join was Sabine Spielrein, who had formerly been a succesive patient, student, and colleague of Jung.
Ernest Jones worked closely with Freud, and encouraged more official meetings of the Wednesday Group.
Karl Abraham was a student and devotee of Freud, and Freud called him his "best pupil."
A senior physician sent Max Eitingon to study under Freud in 1908. Eitingon studied with Freud for five weeks and later became instrumental to psychoanalytic history.
Sandor Ferenczi was a close associate of Freud's, though they later fell into disagreement when Ferenczi sided with his patients, believing that their accounts of sexual abuse as children were real.
Abraham Brill was a friend and associate of Freud, whom he met through the encouragement of Eugen Bleuler around 1908. He later translated Freud's books into English, and remained a friend until Freud's death in 1939, writing his letters from America.
G. Stanley Hall invited Freud to the United States, pleading that he deliver a speech at his Clark University. Freud traveled there in 1909.
Hilda Doolittle was a patient of Freud's in the 1930's. She began treatment of her own accord, in order to express feelings about her bisexuality.
Gustav Mahler had one patient consultation with Freud in 1910, after finding out that his wife was having an affair.
William Christian Bullitt Jr. was a friend and former patient of Freud. When Freud was forced to immigrate to England, Bullitt wrote on Freud's behalf, encouraging the British government to welcome him.
After Freud had fled to London in 1938, he was visited by a number of admirers eager to meet him, including Salvador Dali, Stefan Zweig, Leonard Woolf, Virginia Woolf, and H.G. Wells.
Pribor, Czech Republic - Born here, 1856. Lived here, 1856 - 1859.
Leipzig, Germany - Lived here, 1859 - 1860.
Vienna, Austria - Lived here, 1860 - 1938. Worked here.
Trieste, Italy - Conducted a scientific experiment here, 1876.
Paris, France - Studied psychopathology here, 1885.
Salzburg, Austria - Traveled here, 1908.
Worcester, Massachusetts, USA - Traveled here, 1909.
New York, New York, USA - Traveled here, 1909.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA - Traveled here, 1909.
London, England, UK - Lived here, 1938 - 1939. Died here, 1939.