Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as the lover of Cleopatra.
|Full Name||Gaius Julius Caesar II|
|Who||Emperor of the Roman Empire|
|Birth Date||100 BC|
|Death Date||March 14, 44 BC|
|Cause of Death||assassinated - stabbed to death|
|Father||Gaius Julius Caesar|
Cornelia Cinna, Minor
Caesar was the nephew of Gaius Marius, one of the most powerful men in the Roman Empire during the time of Caesar's childhood. Marius later came to rule Rome, and appointed Caesar the prestigious position of High Priest of Jupiter, when Caesar was only about 17 years old. It was Caesar's first introduction to power, and many believe that his uncle was a major shaping influence of the ruler he would later become.
Cato was an opposer and rival of Caesar from his earliest days of rising to political power. He was so determined that Caesar never be elected to the position of consul in 60 BC, he bribed people to back Caesar's competition - despite having a strong reputation for being uncorrupted. Despite these counter-efforts, Caesar won the election.
During Caesar's early days of rising to political power, he went into debt and requested help from Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in Rome, and thus in the world. Crassus agreed to assist Caesar financially in return for a political alliance between Caesar and Crassus against Pompey.
In return for financial assistance from Crassus, Caesar agreed to create an alliance in which he would thwart Pompey, a longtime rival of Crassus'. However, Caesar did not have anything personally against Pompey, and decided to try to convince both men to reconcile. He reasoned with them that together, as the three most powerful men in Rome, they could reach untouched heights. Both men agreed, and their alliance was created, known as the First Triumvirate. To solidify the deal, Pompey married Caesar's daughter Julia Caesaris, and Pompey became Caesar's son-in-law. Within a few years, however, the two men's friendship would dissolve, as Pompey began to harbor doubts about their political union. When Julia died in 54 BC during childbirth, Pompey no longer had any family ties to Caesar, and declined when Caesar offered his niece to Pompey as a wife. After Crassus died in 53 BC, the Triumvirate died with him, and Pompey no longer considered himself an ally of Caesar. Pompey banded the Senate together against Caesar, and made moves to block him out in 50 BC. He publically accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. However, when Caesar marched into Rome, intending to defy and battle Pompey, Pompey and his supporting senators fled the city, despite having a greater number of troops under their command.
Marc Antony was a close friend, protege, relative, and colleague of Caesar's. During Caesar's rise to power, the two became inseperable, and Caesar appointed Antony with the position of Master of the Horse, meaning that he was second-in-command. Caesar bestowed countless other honors and gifts to Antony later in his rule. Caesar even legally adopted Antony as his own son. After Caesar named Augustus as his heir, however, friction arose between the two. Within a few years, however, they had reconciled. When Antony learned of an assassination plot against Caesar in 44 BC, he rushed to the senate building to warn him, but was apprehended by some of the conspirators outside, who had foreseen that Antony would attempt to save him. Meanwhile, Caesar was stabbed to death inside.
Marcus Brutus was originally an opposer of Caesar's during the Roman Civil Wars, when Brutus sided with Pompey against him. However, Caesar always had only good intentions for the young man, most likely due to the fact that his mother was Caesar's mistress, and he likely viewed Brutus as a son of sorts. During the fighting in the civil war, Caesar ordered that Brutus was not to be harmed - and even that, if he took extreme measures to avoid being captured, that the soldiers were to let him go. After Caesar became the empire's apparent ruler, Brutus wrote a letter of apology to Caesar, and was instantly forgiven. Caesar welcomed Brutus into his kingdom, and even later made him a senator. However, beginning in 45 BC, Brutus began conspiring to kill Caesar. His plan was carried out in 44 BC, when Brutus led an assassination plot in which 60 senators stabbed Caesar to death in the senate building. Some witnesses reported that when Caesar realized that Brutus was leading the assault, he covered his face with his tunic, devastated.
When Caesar traveled to Alexandria in 48 BC, he met the co-regent and sister of the pharaoh, Cleopatra. He became fascinated by her, and soon made moves to support her and overthrow the pharaoh. Though in the midst of a civil war himself, he fought one for Egypt - or rather for Cleopatra - as well, at the end appointing her sole queen of Egypt. The two became lovers, and Cleopatra had a son with Caesar in 47 BC, Caesarion. Caesar remained with Cleopatra in Alexandria until 47 BC, when he had to return to Rome. Still, Cleopatra came to visit his city often, during which time she stayed with him in a luxurious villa on the Tiber River. Their relationship only ended when Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC.
Caesar captured the Egyptian princess Arsinoe IV in 47 BC, as part of his plan of overthrowing the current pharaoh and appointing his lover Cleopatra queen. He took Arsinoe back to Rome as a prisoner, where he forced her to walk through the streets of the city in chains. However, the people were moved by her dignity and elegance, and refused to jeer or mock her, as was customarily done in these processions. It was one of the few times that Caesar experienced a backlash for his treatment of conquered Roman colonies.
Rome, Italy - Born here, 100 BC. Lived here, nearly entire life. Assassinated here, 44 BC.
Mytilene, Greece - Fought in a siege here, 81 BC.
Adana, Turkey - Was stationed here, 82 BC.
Madrid, Spain - Lived here, 69 - 67 BC.
Lucca, Italy - Held a conference here, 56 BC.
Lleida, Spain - Won a battle here, 49 BC.
Brindisi, Italy - Set up a military camp here, 49 BC.
Ionnina, Greece - Traveled through here, 49 BC.
Farsala, Greece - Won a battle here, 48 BC.
Alexandria, Egypt - Lived here, 48 BC - 47 BC.
Amasya, Turkey - Conquered a kingdom here, 47 BC.
Tarsus, Turkey - Traveled through here, 47 BC.
How Added - Randomly thought to add him.