Edward I of England, also commonly known as "Edward Longshanks," was King of England from 1272 - 1307. He was the son of Henry III and belonged to the House of Plantagenet. He is best remembered for stamping out Welsh and Scottish wars for independence, and for issuing the Edict of Expulsion, which stipulated that Jews be forced out of England.
|Full Name||Edward Plantagenet I of England|
|Who||King of England|
|Birth Date||June 17, 1239|
|Death Date||July 7, 1307|
|Born||London, England, UK|
|Died||Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England, UK|
|Cause of Death||dysentery|
|Father||Henry III of England|
|Mother||Eleanor of Provence|
Eleanor of Castile
Margaret of France, Queen of England
Margaret of England
Beatrice of England
Katherine of England
Edward II of England
Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar
Joan of Acre
Alphonso, Earl of Chester
Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant
Mary of Woodstock
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent
Edward was named after Edward the Confessor.
Edward was married to Eleanor of Castile in November of 1254, in Burgos, Spain. At the time, Castile was a powerful domain that posed as a threat of invasion to England, and so the marriage was a strategic move. Edward was 15, and Eleanor was 13. Though they had been forced to marry quite young, Edward and Eleanor were known to be deeply in love, and to have a very close relationship. During their long-lasting marriage, Edward remained faithful to Eleanor and never took up any mistresses, which was extremely unusual for that time. When Eleanor passed away in 1290, Edward was devastated, and built 12 grand "Eleanor crosses" in her honor.
Peter II, Count of Savoy was Edward's great-uncle, and a major influence on him as a young man.
Simon de Montfort was a major rival of Edward's. During Edward's youth, he held far more power than Edward, despite the fact that Edward was crown prince and heir to the throne. In later years, Montfort attempted to claim the throne, and Edward led many battles against him. In 1264, he was captured by Montfort, but escaped with the help of allies within a few months. After this, he had Montfort's son executed. Montfort was eventually defeated by Edward.
William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke was an early friend and ally of Edward's. He helped him to rise to the throne in the midst of other contenders vying for the title.
In 1263, Edward, still the prince, was sent by his father on a campaign against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Though this first mission was unsuccessful, conquering Gruffudd became a vigilant quest throughout much of Edward's life, as the two men were locked in a play of power and complex warfare for the next two decades.
Edward was a friendly ally of Louis IX of France. Louis even loaned Edward money before Edward became king.
Edward was an ally of Charles I of Naples.
Robert Burnell was a trusted colleague of Edward, and acted as regent for Edward while he was on the Ninth Crusade. He continued to serve Edward as king for many years, and Edward made him Lord Chancellor of England in 1274.
When returning from the Ninth Crusade, Edward stopped to visit Gregory X, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1274.
After the death of his friend Louis IX, Edward made a point of going to visit his successor, the new French king Philip III of France, in 1274. He would later marry Philip's daughter and become his son-in-law.
Edward, always eager to gain an advantage over his enemy Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was delighted when his nemesis' brother, Davydd ap Gruffydd, betrayed Llywelyn and sided with the English, even attempting to assassinate his brother with Edward's help. After this failed, Edward harbored Davydd as a member of his court for a few years.
Edward was an acquaintance of Eleanor de Montfort, the daughter of his enemy Simon de Montfort. He held her captive for years in an attempt to stop her from marrying his nemesis Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
Edward was disappointed with his son Edward II as a child, concerned that he was not living up to his role as heir to the throne. Due to this, he exiled his son's favorite and closest friend, Piers Gaveston, being of the opinion that Gaveston was a bad influence. Edward was later shown to bear a deep hatred for Gaveston, and even on his deathbed made his closest advisors promise him not to let Gaveston return to England.
After the death of his beloved first wife, Edward entered into a second, politically advantageous marriage to Margaret of France, the daughter of his ally Philip III of France. They married in 1299.
During the Scottish Wars for independence, Edward's main enemies were the leaders of the rebellions - Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, and Andrew Moray. Edward was known for his brutal and ruthless actions within these wars, likely shaped by his past difficulties in putting down similar such rebellions in Wales. Edward gave Wallace a gruesome execution after capturing him in 1305, and imprisoned Bruce's female relatives and allies in metal cages outdoors for four years.
How Added - Through his enemy William Wallace.